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CHAPTER 1. An Epidemiological Riddle

1. LINK.

CHAPTER 2. Cholera in London: The Ghost Maps of Dr. Snow

1. From William Blake's poem "Jerusalem" (1804). When Blake wrote these words England was still a largely rural place, a "green and pleasant land." However, the Industrial Revolution was already well under way; factories had sprung up and the old cottage industries were disappearing, soon replaced by new industries and the concentration of the population into crowded cities that became incubators for many diseases.

2. Sir John Simon, Report on the Last Two Cholera-Epidemics of London as Affected by the Consumption of Impure Water; Addressed to the Rt. Hon. the President of the General Board of Health, by the Medical Officer of the Board. Presented to Both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty (London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1856), 18, available HERE; John Snow, On the Mode of Communication of Cholera (London: John Churchill, 1855). For epidemiology, see HERE.

3. Steven Johnson, The Ghost Map: The Story of London's Most Terrifying Epidemic and How It Changed Science, Cities, and the Modern World (New York: Riverhead, 2007).

4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Principles of Epidemiology in Public Health Practice, 3rd ed. (Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services, 2007).

5. P. De Kruif, Microbe Hunters (New York: Harcourt, 2002).

6. Snow, On the Mode of Communication of Cholera.

7. Johnson, Ghost Map.

CHAPTER 3. AIDS: The Epidemiology of a New Disease

1. "Pneumocystis Pneumonia - Los Angeles," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 30 (1981): 250-52.

2. "First Reports of AIDS and Growth of Epidemic," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 50, no. 21 (2001).

3. Charles F. Turner et al., AIDS: Sexual Behavior and Intravenous Drug Use (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1989).

4. Advancing HIV Prevention: New Strategies for a Changing Epidemic (Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007).

5. William W. Darrow, "AIDS: Socio-epidemiological Response to an Epidemic," in AIDS and the Social Sciences, ed. Richard Ulack and William Francis Skinner (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1991).

6. Randy Shilts, And the Band Played On: Politics, People, and the AIDS Epidemic (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1987).

7. Paul A. Volberding, Merle A. Sande, Joep Lange, and Warner C. Greene, eds., Global HIV/AIDS Medicine (Philadelphia: Saunders/ Elsevier, 2007).

8. Fears about how AIDS was transmitted exaggerated the dangers of heterosexual transmission and everyday contact; see Michael Crichton, "Panic in the Sheets," Playboy, December 1991; and Joseph Berger, "Communion-Cup Fear Addressed," New York Times, September 13, 1985. "In 1985, at 13, Ryan White became a symbol of the intolerance that is inflicted on AIDS victims. Once it became known that White, a hemophiliac, had contracted the disease from a tainted blood transfusion, school officials banned him from classes" ("American Notes: Voices: The Miracle of Ryan White," Time, April 23, 1990).

9. Volberding et al., Global HIV/AIDS Medicine; Turner et al., AIDS.

10. Volberding et al., Global HIV/AIDS Medicine.

11. Fran├žoise Barre-Sinoussi et al., "Isolation of a T-Lymphotropic Retrovirus from a Patient at Risk for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)," Science, May 20, 1983.

12. Robert Pear, "AIDS Blood Test to Be Available in 2 to 6 Weeks," New York Times, March 3, 1985; J.L. Marx, "A Virus by Any Other Name?" Science, March 22, 1985.

13. UN AIDS Data, LINK.

14. Ernest Drucker and Sten H. Vermund, "Estimating Population Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Urban Areas with High Rates of Intravenous Drug Use: A Model of the Bronx in 1988," American Journal of Epidemiology 130, no. 1 (July 1989).

15. "Epidemiologic Notes and Reports: Possible Transfusion-Associated Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, AIDS -- California," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, December 10, 1982, 652-54.

16. Jonathan Mann, Daniel Tarantola, and Thomas Netter, AIDS in the World (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992).

17. P.A. Selwyn, D. Hartel, W. Wasserman, and E. Drucker, "Impact of the AIDS Epidemic on Morbidity and Mortality Among Intravenous Drug Users in a New York City Methadone Maintenance Program," American Journal of Public Health 79, no. 10 (1989): 1358-63; Ernest Drucker, "AIDS and Addiction in New York City," American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 12, no. 1-2 (1986): 165-81.

18. Gerald H. Friedland, Brian R. Saltzman, Martha F. Rogers, Patricia A. Kahl, Martin L. Lesser, Marguerite M. Mayers, and Robert S. Klein, "Lack of Transmission of HTLV-III/LAV Infection to Household Contacts of Patients with AIDS or AIDS-Related Complex with Oral Candidiasis," New England Journal of Medicine 314, no. 6 (February 6, 1986): 334-49.

19. Peter A. Selwyn, Surviving the Fall: The Personal Journey of an AIDS Doctor (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1998).

20. UN AIDS data.

21. Rodrick Wallace, "Traveling Waves of HIV Infection on a Low Dimensional 'Socio-Geographic' Network," Social Science and Medicine 32, no. 7 (1991): 847-52.

22. Diana M. Hartel, Ellie E. Schoenbaum, Peter A. Selwyn, Gerald H. Friedland, Robert S. Klein, and Ernest Drucker, "Patterns of Heroin, Cocaine and Speedball Injection Among Bronx (USA) Methadone Maintenance Patients: 1978-1988," Addiction Research & Theory 3, no. 4 (1996): 323-40; Ernest Drucker, Cristian Apetrei, Robert Heimer, and Preston Marx, "The Role of Unsterile Injections in the HIV Pandemic," in Volberding et al., Global HIV/AIDS Medicine.

23. William J. Sabol, Heather C. West, and Matthew Copper, "Prisoners in 2008," Bureau of Justice Statistics, revised June 30, 2010; Ryan S. King and Marc Mauer, "Distorted Priorities: Drug Offenders in State Prisons," The Sentencing Project, Washington, DC, September 2002.

24. Anne C. Spaulding, Ryan M. Seals, Matthew J. Page, Amanda K. Brzozowski, William Rhodes, and Theodore M. Hammett, "HIV/AIDS Among Inmates of and Releasees from US Correctional Facilities, 2006: Declining Share of Epidemic but Persistent Public Health Opportunity," PLoS ONE 4, no. 11 (2009): e7558.

CHAPTER 4. A Different Kind of Epidemic

1. The Sentencing Project, "New Incarceration Figures: Thirty-Three Consecutive Years of Growth," December 2006.

2. Lauren E. Glaze and Laura M. Maruschak, "Parents in Prison and Their Minor Children," NCJ222984, U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, January 2009, 2.

3. William J. Sabol and Heather Couture, "Prison Inmates at Midyear 2007," NCJ221944, U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, June 2008, http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/pim07.pdf.

4. Todd Clear, Imprisoning Communities: How Mass Incarceration Makes Disadvantaged Neighborhoods Worse (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007).

5. Bruce Western, Punishment and Inequality in America (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2006).

6. Ibid.; Christopher Wildeman, "Parental Imprisonment, the Prison Boom, and the Concentration of Childhood Disadvantage," Demography 46, no. 2 (2009): 265-80.

7. The total public expenditures on the criminal justice system (police, courts, and corrections) from 1982 to 2010 was $3.7 trillion. Bureau of Justice Statistics, "Direct Expenditures by Criminal Justice Function, 1982-2006," U.S. Department of Justice.

8. William J. Sabol, Heather C. West, and Matthew Cooper, "Prisoners in 2008," Bureau of Justice Statistics, NCJ 228417, December 2009 (revised June 30, 2010); Todd Minton, "Jail Inmates at Midyear 2009," Bureau of Justice Statistics Statistical Tables, NCJ 230122, June 2010.

9. C. Puzzanchera, B. Adams, and W. Kang, "Easy Access to FBI Arrest Statistics: 1994-2007," Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice.

10. "Bureau of Justice Statistics, Federal Criminal Case Processing, 2000, with Trends 1982-2000," U.S. Department of Justice, November 2001, p. 12, Table 6.

11. Ibid.; William J. Sabol, Heather C. West, and Matthew Cooper, "Prisoners in 2008," Bureau of Justice Statistics, revised June 30, 2010.

12. "World Prison Brief -- Highest to Lowest Figures," International Centre for Prison Studies, School of Law, King's College London.

13. Bureau of Justice Statistics, "Total Correctional Population," U.S. Department of Justice.

14. Marc Mauer, "The Changing Racial Dynamics of the War on Drugs," The Sentencing Project, Washington, DC, 2009; Michael H. Tonry, Malign Neglect: Race, Crime, and Punishment in America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995); Katherine Beckett, Kris Nyrop, and Lori Pfingst, "Race, Drugs, and Policing: Understanding Disparities in Drug Delivery Arrests," Criminology 44, no. 1 (February 2006): 105-38.

15. American Correctional Association, A 21st Century Workforce for America's Correctional Profession (Alexandria, VA: American Correctional Association, 2004).

16. "California Proposition 5 (2008)," Ballotpedia.

17. Judith Greene and Marc Mauer, Downscaling Prisons: Lessons from Four States (Washington, DC: The Sentencing Project, 2010); Harry G. Levine and Deborah Peterson Small, The Marijuana Arrest Crusade: Racial Bias and Police Policy in New York City, 1997-2007 (New York: New York Civil Liberties Union, 2008).

18. Clear, Imprisoning Communities.

19. Shannon McCaffrey, "Aging Inmates Clogging Nation's Prisons," Associated Press, September 30, 2007; Ronald H. Aday, Aging Prisoners: Crisis in American Corrections (New York: Praeger, 2003).

CHAPTER 5. Anatomy of an Outbreak: New York's Rockefeller Drug Laws and the Prison Pump

1. Malcolm M. Feeley and Sam Kamin, "The Effect of 'Three Strikes and You're Out' on the Courts: Looking Back to See the Future," in Three Strikes and You're Out: Vengeance as Public Policy, ed. David Shichor and Dale K. Sechrest (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1996), 137-39.

2. H. Irene Hall et al., "Estimation of HIV Incidence in the United States," JAMA 300, no. 5 (August 6, 2008): 520-29.

3. New York State Department of Corrections Criminal Justice Performance Management, "2009 Criminal Justice Crimestat Report," June 30, 2010.

4. William J. Sabol, Heather C. West, and Matthew Cooper, "Prisoners in 2008," Bureau of Justice Statistics, revised June 30, 2010.

5. Unpublished data, Bronx Defenders.

6. Ibid.

CHAPTER 6. Orders of Magnitude: The Relative Impact of Mass Incarceration

1. Office of Vital Statistics, "Summary of Vital Statistics: 2008," New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene; for AIDS data, see HIV Epidemiology and Field Services, "New York City HIV/AIDS Annual Surveillance Statistics," New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene.

2. Tyler McCormick, Matthew J. Salganik, and Tian Zheng, "How Many People Do You Know? Efficiently Estimating Personal Network Size," Journal of the American Statistical Association 105, no. 489 (2010): 59-70. 7. A Self-Sustaining Epidemic: Modes of Reproduction

1. Alfred Blumstein, Jacqueline Cohen, Jeffrey A. Roth, and Christy A. Visher, eds., Criminal Careers and "Career Criminals," Volume I (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1986).

2. Katherine Gabel and Denise Johnston, Children of Incarcerated Parents (New York: Lexington Books, 1995).

3. Ernest Drucker, "Mass Incarceration in America," in The State of Black America 2003, ed. Lee A. Daniels (New York: National Urban League, 2003).

4. Robert Perkinson, Texas Tough: The Rise of America's Prison Empire (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2010); Texas Department of Criminal Justice, "Annual Report 2008."

5. Scott Henson, "Slash the Prison Population," Texas Monthly, May 2009.

6. Scott Henson, "Texas Incarceration Far Outstrips Population Growth," Grits for Breakfast, January 25, 2007.

7. William Finnegan, "Deep East Texas," New Yorker, August 22, 1994, 72.

8. Bob Herbert, "Partway to Freedom," New York Times, June 16, 2003; "Transcript: Truth and Lies," NOW, PBS, August 22, 2003.

9. Ibid.; Andrew Gumbel, "An American Travesty," The Independent, August 20, 2002.

10. Bob Herbert, "A Good Day," New York Times, June 16, 2003.

11. Ray Rivera, Al Baker, and Janet Roberts, "A Few Blocks, 4 Years, 52,000 Police Stops," New York Times, July 12, 2010.

12. Harry G. Levine and Deborah Peterson Small, The Marijuana Arrest Crusade: Racial Bias and Police Policy in New York City, 1997-2007 (New York: New York Civil Liberties Union, 2008), 5; Harry G. Levine, "New York City's Marijuana Arrest Crusade . . . Continues," September 2009.

13. Harry G. Levine and Loren Siegel, "$75 Million a Year: The Cost of New York City's Marijuana Possession Arrests," Drug Policy Alliance, March 15, 2011.

14. Alice Speri, "2010 Marijuana Arrests Top 1978-96 Total," City Room Blog, NYTimes.com, February 11, 2001.

15. Ibid.; Levine and Small, Marijuana Arrest Crusade.

16. Drug Policy Alliance, "2010 NYC Marijuana Arrest Numbers Released: 50,383 New Yorkers Arrested for Possessing Small Amounts of Marijuana," press release, February 10, 2011; John Del Signore, "Welcome to NYC, 'Marijuana Arrest Capital of the World,'" Gothamist, February 10, 2011.

17. Harry G. Levine, Jon B. Gettman, Loren Siegel, and the Marijuana Arrest Research Project, Targeting Blacks for Marijuana: Possession Arrests of African Americans in California, 2004-08 (Los Angeles, CA: Drug Policy Alliance, 2010).

18. Division of Criminal Justice Services, Office of Justice Research and Performance, "2009 Drug Law Reform Preliminary Update on Early Implementation," New York State Department of Corrections, February 2010.

19. Glenn C. Loury, Race, Incarceration, and American Values (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008), 8.

20. Ibid., 7.

21. Ricardo Barreras, "Minor Charges, Serious Consequences: The Collateral Damage of Misdemeanor Arrest," report, Open Society Institute/Bronx Defenders, forthcoming.

22. New York Civil Liberties Union, "School to Prison Pipeline."

23. Jeremy Travis, But They All Come Back: Facing the Challenges of Prisoner Reentry (Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press, 2005).

24. Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness (New York: The New Press, 2010).

25. Mindy Brittner, student project at Barnard College, 2007-8, based on U.S. Census data and Bureau of Justice Statistics annual prison surveys.

26. U.S. Sentencing Commission, "U.S. Sentencing Commission Promulgates Permanent Amendment to the Federal Sentencing Guidelines Covering Crack Cocaine, Other Drug Trafficking Offenses," press release, April 6, 2011.

27. Ernest Drucker, ed. "The Crack Chronicles: Perspectives on Understanding the Trajectory of a New Drug," special issue editor and introduction, Addiction Research and Theory 11, no. 1 (February 2003).

28. James Bonta and D.A. Andrews, Risk-Need-Responsivity Model for Offender Assessment and Rehabilitation (Ottawa: Public Safety Canada, 2007); Beyond the Revolving Door: A New Response to Chronic Offenders: Report of the Street Crime Working Group to the Justice Review Task Force (Victoria, BC: BC Justice Review Task Force, 2005).

29. New York State Department of Corrections Criminal Justice Performance Management, "2009 Criminal Justice Crimestat Report," June 30, 2010; Justice Mapping Center website.

30. Ernest Drucker and Ricardo Barreras, "Assessing Children's Exposure to Parental Incarceration: An Epidemiological Approach," Abstract #111443, presented at the 2005 American Public Health Association annual meeting, Philadelphia, PA.

31. Anne Dannerbeck, "Differences Between Delinquent Youth with and Without a Parental History of Incarceration," School of Social Work, University of Missouri, Columbia, 2005; Nell Bernstein, "When the Jailhouse Is Far from Home: Kids with Parents Behind Bars Share the Pain of Incarceration," A Sentence of Their Own.

32. Denise Johnston, Children of Offenders (Pasadena, CA: Pacific Oaks Center for Children of Incarcerated Parents, 1992); Denise Johnston, Children of the Therapeutic Intervention Project (Pasadena, CA: Pacific Oaks Center for Children of Incarcerated Parents, 1993).

33. Christina W. Hoven, Ernest Drucker, Cristiane S. Duarte, et al., "Stress and Justice Studies: Maternal Incarceration and Course of Child Psychopathology in the South Bronx," New York State Psychiatric Institute, 2010; Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Studies.

34. Christopher Wildeman, "Parental Imprisonment, the Prison Boom, and the Concentration of Childhood Disadvantage," Demography 46, no. 1 (February 2009); Becky Pettit, "Growing Up with an Imprisoned Parent: The Implications of Mass Imprisonment for the Future of American Inequality," proposal to the Russell Sage Foundation, October 14, 2009.

35. William Julius Wilson, When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor (New York: Knopf, 1996); William Julius Wilson, The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987).

36. Robert D. Putnam, Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000).

37. Jeffrey Fagan, Valerie West, and Jan Holland, "Reciprocal Effects of Crime and Incarceration in New York City Neighborhoods," Fordham Urban Law Journal 30 (2003): 1551-1602.

38. Todd R. Clear, "Backfire: When Incarceration Increases Crime," Journal of the Oklahoma Criminal Justice Research Consortium 3, no. 2 (1996): 1-10; Dina R. Rose and Todd R. Clear, "Incarceration, Social Capital and Crime: Examining the Unintended Consequences of Incarceration," Criminology 36, no. 3 (1998).

39. Craig Reinermann, "Cannabis Policies and User Practices: Market Separation, Price, Potency, and Accessibility in Amsterdam and San Francisco," International Journal of Drug Policy, no. 1 (January 2009): 28-37.

40. Ryan S. King and Marc Mauer, "The War on Marijuana: The Transformation of the War on Drugs in the 1990s," Harm Reduction Journal 3, no. 6 (2006); Levine and Small, Marijuana Arrest Crusade.

41. D.A. Andrews and James Bonta, The Psychology of Criminal Conduct, 4th ed. (Newark, NJ: Anderson, 2006).

CHAPTER 8. Chronic Incapacitation: The Long Tail of Mass Incarceration

1. Marc Mauer and Meda Chesney-Lind, eds., Invisible Punishment: The Collateral Consequences of Mass Imprisonment (New York: The New Press, 2002).

2. David Garland, Punishment and Modern Society: A Study in Social Theory (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993).

3. Jeremy Travis, But They All Come Back: Rethinking Prisoner Reentry (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, 2000).

4. Bruce Western, Punishment and Inequality in America (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2006).

5. Steven D. Levitt and Stephen J. Dubner, Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything (New York: William Morrow, 2005).

6. Heather MacDonald, "Fighting Crime Where the Criminals Are," New York Times, June 25, 2010.

7. World Health Organization, "DALYs/YLDs Definition."

8. Ibid.

9. See Estelle v. Gamble, U.S. Supreme Court, 1964.

10. Travis, But They All Come Back; Patrick A. Langan and David J. Levin, "Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 1994," Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report NCJ 193427, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC, June 2, 2002.

11. Robert Greifinger, ed., Public Health Behind Bars: From Prisons to Communities (New York: Springer, 2007).

12. "Putting Policy into Practice on Prison Health," Lancet Infectious Diseases 7, no. 8 (August 2007): 497.

13. Correctional Association of New York, "Healthcare in New York Prisons 2004-2007," February 2009.

14. Robert B. Greifinger, "Inmates Are Public Health Sentinels," tes- timony before Commission on Safety and Health in U.S. Prisons, Washington, DC, June 28, 2005.

15. Women in Prison Project, "Survivors of Abuse in Prison Fact Sheet," April 2009.

16. Diane C. Hatton and Anastasia A. Fisher, eds. Women Prisoners and Health Justice: Perspectives, Issues, and Advocacy for an International Hidden Population (Oxford: Radcliffe, 2009); Pamela M. Diamond et al., "The Prevalence of Mental Illness in Prison," Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research 29, no. 1 (2001).

17. Allen J. Beck and Paige M. Harrison, Sexual Victimization in Prisons and Jails Reported by Inmates, 2008-09 (Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2010). See also Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003, P.L. 108-79, 2003 U.S. Code.

18. Devon B. Adams, Allen J. Beck, and Paige M. Harrison, "Sexual Violence Reported by Correctional Authorities, 2006," U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, August 16, 2007.

19. Jeremy Travis, "Charting a New Course: A Blueprint for Transforming Juvenile Justice in New York State," report of Governor David Paterson's Task Force on Transforming Juvenile Justice, December 2009.

20. Greifinger, Public Health Behind Bars.

21. Ibid.

22. Ibid.

23. Christopher J. Mumola and Jennifer C. Karberg, "Drug Use and Dependence, State and Federal Prisoners, 2004," U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, NCJ 213530, October 2006.

24. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, "Drug Treatment and Rehabilitation in Prison Settings."

25. Ingrid A. Binswanger, Marc F. Stern, and Joann G. Elmore, "Mortality After Release from Prison," author/editor response, New England Journal of Medicine 356 (April 26, 2007).

26. Roy Walmsley, "World Prison Population List, Sixth Edition," King's College London, 2009.

27. "Drug Treatment in the Criminal Justice System," Office of National Drug Control Policy, March 2001.

28. Michael Rothfeld, "State to Eliminate 40% of Funding Designed to Turn Prisoners' Lives Around," Los Angeles Times, October 17, 2009.

29. Kate Dolan, Wayne Hall, and Alex Wodak, "Methadone Maintenance Reduces Injecting in Prison," letter to the editor, BMJ 312, no. 7039 (1996): 1162.

30. Ibid.

31. Timothy W. Kinlock, Michael S. Gordon, Robert P. Schwartz, Terrence T. Fitzgerald, and Kevin E. O'Grady, "A Randomized Clinical Trial of Methadone Maintenance for Prisoners," Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 37, no. 3 (2009): 277-85; Jennifer C. Karberg and Doris J. James, "Substance Dependence, Abuse, and Treatment of Jail Inmates," U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, NCJ 209588, July 2005.

32. Binswanger et al., "Mortality After Release from Prison."

33. H. Irene Hall et al., "Estimation of HIV Incidence in the United States," JAMA 300, no. 5 (August 6, 2008): 520-29.

34. "HIV/AIDS Among Women," Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, August 2008.

35. Kristen Tillerson, "Explaining Racial Disparities in HIV/AIDS Incidence Among Women in the U.S.: A Systematic Review," Statistics in Medicine 27, no. 20 (2008): 4132-43.

36. Anne C. Spaulding, Ryan M. Seals, Matthew J. Page, Amanda K. Brzozowski, William Rhodes, and Theodore M. Hammett, "HIV/AIDS Among Inmates of and Releasees from US Correctional Facilities, 2006: Declining Share of Epidemic but Persistent Public Health Opportunity," PLoS ONE 4, no. 11 (2009): e7558.

37. Thomas A. Peterman, Catherine A. Lindsey, and Richard M. Selik, "This Place Is Killing Me: A Comparison of Counties Where the Incidence Rates of AIDS Increased the Most and the Least," Journal of Infectious Diseases 191, Suppl. 1 (2005): S123-26.

38. Adaora A. Adimora and Victor J. Schoenbach, "Social Context, Sexual Networks, and Racial Disparities in Rates of Sexually Transmitted Infections," Journal of Infectious Diseases 191, Suppl. 1 (2005): S115-22.

39. Bernard E. Harcourt, "Cruel and Unusual Punishment," in Encyclopedia of the American Constitution, Supplement II, ed. Leonard Levy, Kenneth Karst, and Adam Winkler (New York: Macmillan, 2000); Bernard E. Harcourt, "The Mentally Ill, Behind Bars," New York Times, January 15, 2007.

40. Christopher J. Mumola, "Suicide and Homicide in State Prisons and Local Jails," U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, NCJ 210036, August 2005.

41. Atul Gawande, "Hellhole," New Yorker, March 30, 2009.

42. Jeffrey L. Metzner and Jamie Fellner, "Solitary Confinement and Mental Illness in U.S. Prisons: A Challenge for Medical Ethics," Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 38, no. 1 (2010).

43. Gawande, "Hellhole."

44. Jennifer Gonnerman, Life on the Outside: The Prison Odyssey of Elaine Bartlett (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2004).

45. Bruce Western, Punishment and Inequality in America (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2006); Jeremy Travis and Michelle Waul, eds., Prisoners Once Removed: The Impact of Incarceration and Reentry on Children, Families, and Communities (Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press, 2003).

46. Christopher Wilderman, "Parental Imprisonment, the Prison Boom, and the Concentration of Childhood Disadvantage," Demography 46, no. 1 (February 2009).

47. Jeff Manza and Christopher Uggen, "The President Is Right: Ex-Felons Need Aid," Newsday, February 5, 2004.

48. "No Second Chance: Federal 'One Strike' Legislation," Human Rights Watch Report, 2004.

49. "Is a Convicted Felon Currently on Probation Eligible for the HUD Subsidized Housing Program?" FHA Home Mortgage Loan Interest Rates, May 22, 2009.

50. Council of State Governments, "Homelessness Is Prevalent Among People Released from Prison and Jail," 2008.

51. Ibid.

52. S. Metraux and D. Culhane, "Homeless Shelter Use and Reincarcera- tion Following Prison Release: Assessing the Risk," Center for Stud- ies on Addiction, School of Social Work, University of Pennsylvania, October 2002.

53. Caterina Gouvis Roman and Jeremy Travis, Taking Stock: Housing, Homelessness, and Prisoner Reentry (Washington, DC: Urban Institute, 2004).

54. "Prison > Homelessness," A Public Defender, August 17, 2007.

55. Thelton E. Henderson Center for Social Justice, "Barriers to Employment & Reentry for Formerly Incarcerated People," annotated bibli- ography, UC Berkeley School of Law, December 2008.

56. American Bar Association Commission on Effective Criminal Sanctions and the Public Defender Service for the District of Columbia, Internal Exile: Collateral Consequences of Conviction in Federal Laws and Regulations (Chicago: American Bar Association, 2009).

57. David R. Jones, "Ex-Prisoners and Jobs," Gotham Gazette, May 2006.

58. Darren Wheelock, "Collateral Consequences and Racial Inequality: Felon Status Restrictions as a System of Disadvantage," Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 21, no. 1 (2005): 82-90.

59. Henrie M. Treadwell and Elisabeth Kingsbury, "Ex-Felons Denied Foodstamps, Other Assistance," Black Star News, December 17, 2009.

60. Alexander Kirshner, "The International Status of the Right to Vote," Democracy Coalition Project, November 2003; Richard S. Katz, Democracy and Elections (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 216.

61. "The Sentencing Project Publishes Report on Disenfranchisement Reform," press release, The Sentencing Project, September 25, 2008.

62. Ibid.

CHAPTER 9. The Contagion of Punishment: Collateral Damage to Children and Families of Prisoners

1. Bruce Western, Punishment and Inequality in America (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2006).

2. Lori B. Girshik, Soledad Women: Wives of Prisoners Speak Out (Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996).

3. Bruce Western, "Incarceration, Marriage and Family Life," working paper, September 2004, Russell Sage Foundation.

4. Ibid., 22-23.

5. Sara McLanahan et al., The Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study: Baseline National Report (Princeton, NJ: Bendheim-Thoman Center for Research on Child Wellbeing, 2003).

6. Bendheim-Thoman Center for Research on Child Wellbeing, "Fragile Families Research Brief 12," October 2002, 3.

7. William Julius Wilson, When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor (New York: Knopf, 1996).

8. Dan Bloom, "Employment-Focused Programs for Ex-Prisoners: What Have We Learned, What Are We Learning, and Where Should We Go from Here?" MDRC, July 2006.

9. Osborne Association, How Can I Help?, 3 vol. pamphlet set.

10. Patricia E. Allard and Lynn D. Lu, Rebuilding Families, Reclaiming Lives: State Obligations to Children in Foster Care and Their Incarcerated Parents (New York: Brennan Center for Justice at New York University School of Law, 2006), 4.

11. Maryann Zavez, "Use of the Adoption and Safe Families Act at 15/22 Months for Incarcerated Parents," Vermont Law Review 33, no. 2 (2008): 187-99.

12. "Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2004," NCJ-208801, U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, April 2005.

13. The Osborne Association is the lead convener of the New York City Initiative on Children of Parents in Prison, and is currently involved in a system-wide assessment of policies affecting children following the arrest of a parent.

14. Julie Kowitz Margolies and Tamar Kraft-Stolar, "When 'Free' Means Losing Your Mother," Women in Prison Project of the Correctional Association of New York, February 2006, xi.

15. Allard and Lu, Rebuilding Families, Reclaiming Lives.

16. Kowitz Margolies and Kraft-Stolar, "When 'Free' Means Losing Your Mother," 16.

17. Allard and Lu, Rebuilding Families, Reclaiming Lives, 5.

18. Anitra Pivnick, "Kinchart-Sociograms as a Method for Describing the Social Networks of Drug-Using Women," NIDA Monograph 165 (1996): 167-20:; K. Eric, E. Drucker, D. Worth, B. Chabon, A. Pivnick, and K. Cochrane, "The Women's Center: A Model Peer Support Program for High Risk IV Drug and Crack Using Women in the Bronx," International Conference on AIDS 5 (June 4-9, 1989): 760 (abstract no. Th.D.P.7).

19. Michelle Cornacchia, "Critical History of the Adoption and Safe Families Act," unpublished research report, New Jersey College of Medicine and Dentistry, February 2010.

20. Allard and Lu, Rebuilding Families, Reclaiming Lives.

21. Michael Downey, "Canada's Cultural Genocide: Forced Removal of Native Children," Contemporary Issues Companion: Genocide, ed. William Dudley (Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2001); Peter Read, The Stolen Generations: The Removal of Aboriginal Children in New South Wales 1883 to 1969 (Surry Hills, NSW: Department of Aboriginal Affairs, 2006).

22. "Interview: Martin Guggenheim, Failure to Protect," Frontline, PBS, 2010.

23. Christopher J. Mumola, "Incarcerated Parents and Their Children," U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, NCJ 192335, August 2000; Lauren E. Glaze and Laura M. Maruschak, "Parents in Prison and Their Minor Children," NCJ 2222984, Bureau of Justice Statistics, August 8, 2008.

24. Ricardo Barreras, Ernest Drucker, and David Rosenthal, "The Concentration of Substance Use, Criminal Justice Involvement, and HIV/ AIDS in the Families of Drug Offenders," Journal of Urban Health 82, no. 1 (2005): 162-70.

25. Adrian Nicole LeBlanc, Random Family: Love, Drugs, Trouble, and Coming of Age in the Bronx (New York: Scribner, 2003).

26. Katherine Gabel and Denise Johnston, Children of Incarcerated Parents (New York: Lexington Books, 1995).

27. Quoted in ibid.

28. Creasie Finney Hairston, "Prisoners and Their Families: Parenting Issues During Incarceration," From Prison to Home: The Effect of Incarceration and Reentry on Children, Families, and Communities, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, and Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, December 2001.

29. Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, "Study Topics."

30. Amanda Geller, Carey E. Cooper, Irwin Garfinkel, Ofira Schwartz-Soicher, and Ronald B. Mincy, "Beyond Absenteeism: Father Incarceration and Its Effects on Children's Development," working paper WP09-20-FF, Center for Research on Child Wellbeing, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, January 25, 2010.

31. Christopher Wildeman, "Parental Incarceration, Child Homelessness, and the Invisible Consequences of Mass Imprisonment," Working Paper WP09-19-FF, Center for Research on Child Wellbeing and Fragile Families, April 2010.

32. Travis A. Fritsch and John D. Burkhead, "Behavioral Reactions of Children to Parental Absence Due to Imprisonment," Family Relations 30 (1982).

33. Christopher Wildeman, "Parental Imprisonment, the Prison Boom, and the Concentration of Childhood Disadvantage," Demography 46, no. 2 (2009): 265-80.

34. Leonard M. Lopoo and Bruce Western, "Incarceration and the Formation and Stability of Marital Unions," Journal of Marriage and the Family 67, no. 3 (2005): 721-34; Michael Massoglia, "Incarceration as Exposure: The Prison, Infectious Disease and Other Stress-Related Illnesses," Journal of Health and Social Behavior 49, no. 1 (2008): 56- 71; Jason Schnittker and Andrea John, "Enduring Stigma: The Long-Term Effects of Incarceration on Health," Journal of Health and Social Behavior 48, no. 2 (2007): 115-30.

35. Massoglia, "Incarceration as Exposure."

36. "Infant Mortality and African Americans," U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

37. "School to Prison Pipeline: Fact Sheet," New York Civil Liberties Union, http://www.nyclu.org/schooltoprison.

38. Western, Punishment and Inequality in America.

39. Barreras, Drucker, and Rosenthal, "Concentration of Substance Use."

40. Denise Johnston, Children of the Therapeutic Intervention Project (Pasadena, CA: Pacific Oaks Center for Children of Incarcerated Parents, 1993).

41. Nell Bernstein, "When the Jailhouse Is Far from Home," A Sentence of Their Own; Anne Dannerbeck, "Differences Between Delinquent Youth with and Without a Parental History of Incarceration," School of Social Work, University of Missouri, Columbia, 2005; Prison Visitation Project, Needs Assessment of Children Whose Parents Are Incarcerated (Richmond, VA: Department of Mental Health, Mental Retardation, and Substance Abuse Services, 1993).

42. Denise Johnston, Children of Offenders (Pasadena, CA: Pacific Oaks Center for Children of Incarcerated Parents, 1992); Lauren E. Glaze and Laura M. Maruschak, "Parents in Prison and Their Minor Children," NCJ222984, U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, January 2009, 2.

43. J. David Hawkins, Todd I. Herrenkohl, David P. Farrington, Devon Brewer, Richard F. Catalano, Tracy W. Harachi, and Lynn Cothern, "Predictors of Youth Violence," OJJDP Juvenile Justice Bulletin, April 2000.

44. Dina R. Rose and Todd R. Clear, "Incarceration, Social Capital and Crime: Examining the Unintended Consequences of Incarceration," Criminology 36, no. 3 (1998); Todd R. Clear, Imprisoning Communities: How Mass Incarceration Makes Disadvantaged Neighborhoods Worse (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007).

45. Bruce Western, "Mass Incarceration: An Update," Columbia Population Research Center seminar, February 18, 2010.

CHAPTER 10. Ending Mass Incarceration: A Public Health Model

1. Nils Christie, Crime Control as Industry (London: Routledge, 1998).

2. Pew Center on the States, "Prison Count 2010: State Population Declines for the First Time in 38 Years," issue brief, April 2010.

3. Ibid; "Expensive Prisons," editorial, New York Times, February 7, 2011.

4. Brian Walsh, "The Criminal Intent Report: Congress Must Justify New Criminalization," Heritage Foundation, June 9, 2010.

5. Jennifer Steinhauer, "To Cut Costs, States Relax Prison Policies," New York Times, March 24, 2009.

6. "Testimony of Jeremy Travis, President of John Jay College of Criminal Justice, Before the U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies," March 12, 2009; Heather Couture and Wil- liam J. Sabol, "Prison Inmates at Midyear 2007," Bureau of Justice Statistics, June 6, 2008, NCJ 221994, 4.

7. New York Legal Aid Society, "Report on Impact of Drug Law Reform," November 2009. See also "New Legal Aid Society Report Finds That 2004 and 2005 Rockefeller Drug Law Reforms Huge Success," press release, Drug Policy Alliance, January 14, 2010.

8. William Gibney, personal communication.

9. 2009 Drug Law Reform Update, New York State Department of Corrections, Division of Criminal Justice Services, June 16, 2010.

10. New York State Unified Court System, "Chief Judge Announces Creation of Permanent Sentencing Commission for New York State," press release, October 13, 2010.

11. Judith Greene and Marc Mauer, Downscaling Prisons: Lessons from Four States (Washington, DC: The Sentencing Project, 2010).

12. Ibid., 3.

13. Rebekah Diller, "The Hidden Costs of Florida's Criminal Justice Fees," Brennan Center for Justice, New York University School of Law, March 23, 2010.

14. Michael Jacobson, Downsizing Prisons: How to Reduce Crime and End Mass Incarceration (New York: NYU Press, 2006).

15. The Fortune Society; The Correctional Association of New York; The Osborne Association; and The Women's Prison Association.

16. Becky Pettit and Bruce Western, "Mass Imprisonment and the Life Course: Race and Class Inequality in U.S. Incarceration," American Sociological Review 69, no. 2 (2004): 151-69.

17. Charles M. Blow, "Black in the Age of Obama," New York Times, December 4, 2009; Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness (New York: The New Press, 2010).

18. Philip Gourevitch, "The Life After: Fifteen Years After the Genocide in Rwanda, the Reconciliation Defies Expectations," New Yorker, May 4, 2009.

19. Howard Zehr, The Little Book of Restorative Justice (Intercourse, PA: Good Books, 2002); Kay Pranis, "Restoring Community: The Pro- cess of Circle Sentencing," paper presented at the "Justice Without Violence: Views from Peacemaking Criminology and Restorative Justice" conference, June 6, 1997; see also the Capital Restorative Justice project; Community Works restor- ative justice models, Family Transition Circles.

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